Fourth, at the end of 2001, the international community`s engagement in Afghanistan was only just beginning and has increased, while the presidential elections will be held next year in parallel with the international military withdrawal from Afghanistan and the decrease in international financial support. The Bonn Agreement was signed on 5 December 2001 by representatives of various anti-Taliban factions and political groups. It set out a roadmap and timetable for the establishment of peace and security, the reconstruction of the country, the restoration of some important institutions and the protection of human rights. The agreement contains provisions relating to military demobilization and integration, international peacekeeping and human rights monitoring. A 12-part document entitled “Afghanistan`s Bonn Agreement: A Catalog of Missed Opportunities,” published today by Human Rights Watch, analyzes conditions in the country one year after the agreement that formalized the end of the Taliban regime. The briefing paper outlines a number of areas where the Afghan government and international actors have missed opportunities to improve security and protect human rights. Human Rights Watch makes several recommendations to international and Afghan actors to help implement important provisions of the agreement. “A year later, the Bonn agreement still represents Afghanistan`s best chance to end chronic instability, violence and a history of massive human rights violations,” said Brad Adams, Asia executive director at Human Rights Watch. “However, many of the agreement`s promises were not kept last year. The international community has missed several opportunities to marginalize local military leaders and better promote security and the protection of human rights.

After the fall of the Taliban in 2001, the Bonn Agreement laid the groundwork for state reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan, supported by the United States and NATO. The agreement aimed to create a new constitution, an independent judiciary, free and fair elections, a centralized sector of security and the protection of the rights of women, including minorities, such as religious and ethnic groups.