To combat climate change and its negative effects, 197 countries adopted the Paris Agreement at COP21 on 12 December 2015 in Paris. The agreement, which came into force less than a year later, aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius this century, while continuing to limit the rise to 1.5 degrees. Since the Kyoto Protocol came into force, the Clean Development Mechanism has been criticized because, in most cases, it has not brought significant emission reductions or benefits for sustainable development. [45] It has also suffered from low prices from Certified Emission Reductions (REFs), which has reduced project demand. These criticisms have motivated the recommendations of various interest groups who, through working groups and reports, have provided new elements that they hope to see in the MDS that will support their success. [38] Details of the governance structure, the terms of the project proposal and the comprehensive approach should be detailed at the conference of the parties to be held in Marrakech in 2016. [must update] This strategy included energy and climate policy, including the 20/20/20 targets, namely a 20% reduction in carbon DIOXIDE (CO2) emissions, an increase in the market share of renewable energy to 20% and a 20% increase in energy efficiency. [12] The Paris Agreement reflects the collective belief of almost every nation on the planet that climate change is humanity`s war to combat it, and reveals America`s climate-sceptics – including Trump – as global outliers. Indeed, the mobilization of support for climate action across the country and around the world gives hope that the Paris Agreement has marked a turning point in the fight against climate change. We can all contribute to the cause by looking for ways to reduce contributions to global warming, at the individual, local and national levels. The effort will be worth the reward of a safer and cleaner world for future generations.

As explained in this C2ES edition letter, the participation of the United States in the Paris Agreement can only be decided by the President, without, among other things, seeking the Council and the approval of the Senate, because of the establishment of an existing treaty, the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. If Biden is president, he would have enough authority to join it as an “executive convention.” The long-term objective of the Paris Agreement is to keep the increase in global average temperature well below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels; and to continue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius, while acknowledging that this would significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change.