In the same letter, Obama explained the possible unilateral and multilateral non-military reactions that should be used in the event of Iran`s violation of the agreement, but the president said, “Ultimately, it is important to maintain the flexibility to decide what reactive measures we and our allies deem appropriate for any non-compliance.” [383] Flexibility meant that Obama had previously opposed the establishment of “sanctions for minor violations of the agreement.” [385] July 8, 2019: Iran informs the IAEA that uranium from the Natanz fuel enrichment pilot plant has been enriched to “about 4.5%” of uranium 235. The agency released a report confirming that Iran has exceeded the 3.67% ceiling set by the nuclear enrichment agreement. In an interview with reporters, US President Donald Trump warned: “Iran should be careful.” On April 2, 2015, a framework was reached for a nuclear agreement with Iran. In this context, Iran has tentatively agreed to accept restrictions on its nuclear program, which would take at least a decade and some more, and to submit to an increase in the intensity of international inspections under a framework agreement. These details are expected to be negotiated by the end of June 2015. Negotiations on a common comprehensive action plan were extended several times until the final agreement, the Joint Comprehensive Action Plan, was finally reached on 14 July 2015. [55] [56] The JCPOA is based on the framework agreement three months earlier. September 5, 2014: The IAEA`s quarterly report on Iran`s nuclear program shows that Iran is complying with the interim agreement, but that the IAEA has not provided information on past activities of potential military dimension (PMD) until 25 August. 10 July 2019: The IAEA Board of Governors meets in Vienna to discuss the review and monitoring of nuclear activities in Iran at the request of a member state. The complexity of the final agreement shows the impact of a public letter written by a bipartisan group of 19 U.S.

diplomats, experts and others in June 2015, while negotiations were still underway. [60] [61] This letter raised concerns about the various provisions of the agreement that had not yet been concluded at the time and called for a number of improvements to strengthen and support the future agreement. [60] After the final agreement, one of the first negotiators, Robert J. Einhorn, a former U.S. State Department official who now works at the Brookings Institution, said of the agreement: “Analysts will be pleasantly surprised. The more agreements, the less opportunities for implementation will be in the future. [60] May 3, 2019: The United States announces that it will extend the exemptions to pursue some nuclear cooperation projects in Iran, but end others. The United States extended the Arak reactor conversion, the fordov plant transformation, the Bushehr nuclear reactor and The Tehran Research Reactor by 90 days, but halted declarations of a waiver of Iran`s enriched uranium transfer, the transfer and storage of heavy water outside Iran, and the construction of additional reactors in Bushehr. Monitoring and verification. Among the indeterminate provisions, Iran is required to apply and subsequently ratify an “additional protocol” to its safeguards agreement with the IAEA, which gives IAEA inspectors unprecedented access to Iranian nuclear facilities.

(As a signatory to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, Iran has pledged never to pursue nuclear weapons, but it has the right to pursue nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.) The Agency publishes quarterly reports to its Board of Governors and the United Nations Security Council on Iran`s implementation of nuclear obligations.